Palladium-Decorated Hydrogen-Gas Sensors Using Periodically Aligned Graphene Nanoribbons

Polymer residue-free graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of 200 nm width at 1 μm pitch were periodically generated in an area of 1 cm2 via laser interference lithography using a chromium interlayer prior to photoresist coating. High-quality GNRs were evidenced by atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Palladium nanoparticles were then deposited on the GNRs as catalysts for sensing hydrogen gases, and the GNR array was utilized as an electrically conductive path with less electrical noise. The palladium-decorated GNR array exhibited a rectangular sensing curve with unprecedented rapid response and recovery properties: 90% response within 60 s at 1000 ppm and 80% recovery within 90 s in nitrogen ambient. In addition, reliable and repeatable sensing behaviors were revealed when the array was exposed to various gas concentrations even at 30 ppm.