Novel animal-bone-meal-supported palladium as a green and efficient catalyst for Suzuki coupling reaction in water, under sunlight

<p>Animal-bone-meal-supported palladium (0) was prepared and used as catalyst in the Suzuki coupling reaction in water, under sunlight as an alternative source of energy. This palladium has showed a high catalytic activity than tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium (Pd(PPh<sub>3</sub>)<sub>4</sub>) in the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction (the reaction of 4-halogenopyridopyrimidine with boronic acids) in water via sunlight as the light source, with no addition of ligands. This green method affords heteroaryls with excellent yields in comparison with the classical method using tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium. The green catalyst did not show any significant loss of activity, even when used up to five times.</p>