New Synthetic Routes to Chain-Extended Selenium, Sulfur, and Nitrogen Analogues of the Naturally Occurring Glucosidase Inhibitor Salacinol and their Inhibitory Activities against Recombinant Human Maltase Glucoamylase

Six heteroanalogues (X = S, Se, NH) of the naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor salacinol, containing polyhydroxylated, acyclic chains of 6-carbons, were synthesized for structure−activity studies with different glycosidase enzymes. The target zwitterionic compounds were synthesized by means of nucleophilic attack of the PMB-protected 1,4-anhydro-4-seleno-, 1,4-anhydro-4-thio-, and 1,4-anhydro-4-imino-d-arabinitols at the least hindered carbon atom of 1,3-cyclic sulfates. These 1,3-cyclic sulfates were derived from d-glucose and d-galactose, and significantly, they utilized butane diacetal as the protecting groups for the <i>trans</i> 2,3-diequatorial positions. Deprotection of the coupled products proceeded smoothly, unlike in previous attempts with different protecting groups, and afforded the target selenonium, sulfonium, and ammonium sulfates with different stereochemistry at the stereogenic centers. The four new heterosubstituted compounds (X = Se, NH) inhibited recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), one of the key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine. The two selenium derivatives each had <i>K</i><sub>i</sub> values of 0.10 μM, giving the most active compounds to date in this general series of zwitterionic glycosidase inhibitors. The two nitrogen compounds also inhibited MGA but were less active, with <i>K</i><sub>i</sub> values of 0.8 and 35 μM. The compounds in which X = S showed <i>K</i><sub>i</sub> values of 0.25 and 0.17 μM. Comparison of these data with those reported previously for related compounds reinforces the requirements for an effective inhibitor of MGA. With respect to chain extension, the configurations at C-2‘ and C-4‘ are critical for activity, the configuration at C-3‘, bearing the sulfate moiety, being unimportant. It would also appear that the configuration at C-5‘ is important but the relationship is dependent on the heteroatom.