NK cell proliferation and activation in response to SIV infection.

<p>Longitudinal changes in the expression of Ki-67 (A & B), CD69 (C & D), HLA-DR (E & F), and α4β7 (G & H) were monitored for CD16<sup>+</sup>, CD56<sup>+</sup> and CD16<sup>-</sup>CD56<sup>-</sup> NK cells (left panels: A, C, E & G) and for KIR3DL01<sup>+</sup>, KIR3DL05<sup>+</sup> and KIR3DL01<sup>-</sup>05<sup>-</sup> NK cells (right panels: B, D, F & H). Absolute counts were calculated as a percentage of total NK cell counts by staining PBMCs with antibodies to CD3, CD8, NKG2A, CD16, CD56, KIR3DL01 and KIR3DL05 (tetramer), and to markers of proliferation (Ki-67), activation (CD69 & HLA-DR) and mucosal homing (α4β7). Representative gating for the proliferation and activation panel is shown in <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006506#ppat.1006506.s004" target="_blank">S4 Fig</a>. The mean and standard error (error bars) are shown for each NK cell subset. Significance values for acute (weeks 1–4) and chronic (weeks 6–24) infection compared to pre-infection (week 0) are indicated with asterisks color-coded to the corresponding cell population (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p< 0.005*** & p<0.001****, mixed effects models).</p>