Multidrug resistant monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium from pig production in Thailand
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Background: Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium or S. enterica 1,4,,12:i:- is among the top five serotypes reported in Thailand. In this study, nineteen monophasic S. Typhimurium from the pig production chain in Chiang Mai and Lamphun province during 2011–2014 were sequenced and compared to the globally disseminated clone. Isolates were probed in silico for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and Salmonella virulence factors, including Pathogenicity Islands.
Results: All isolates were from sequence type 34 (ST-34) and clustered similarly in core and pangenome genealogies. The two closest related isolates showed differences in only eighteen loci from whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wg-MLST) analysis. All 19 isolates carried aminoglycoside and beta-lactam class resistance genes and genes for 5 or more different antibiotic classes. Seven out of 14 known SPIs were detected, including SPI-5, SPI-13 and SPI-14, which were deteced in all isolates.
Conclusions: The multi-drug resistant clone, ST-34 was sampled at all stages of pork production. This clone has infiltrated global agricultural processes and poses a significant public health risk. Differences in the core and accessory genomes of the isolates we collected suggest that strains persist though the pork production process, with evidence of mutation within the core-genome and horizontal acquisition of genes, potentially via sharing of pathogenicity islands and plasmids. This highlights the importance of surveillance and targeted intervention measures to successfully control Salmonella contamination.