Moderate anemia at diagnosis is an independent prognostic marker of the EUTOS, Sokal, and Hasford scores for survival and treatment response in chronic-phase, chronic myeloid leukemia patients with frontline imatinib

<p><b>Objectives:</b> This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of anemia for the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving imatinib.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> One hundred and fifty-four CML-CP patients were enrolled. The influences of moderate anemia with hemoglobin (Hb) < 10 g/dl, four scoring systems, and the early molecular response at 3 months (BCR-ABL ≤10%; 3M-EMR) on the achievement of a deep molecular response (DMR, MR4.5), progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Moderate anemia was identified in 44 (28.6%) patients. These patients had more aggressive baseline features and higher risks, as assessed by scoring systems, and less favorable treatment responses vs those without anemia, including 3M-EMR (50.0% vs 69.1%), a complete cytogenetic response at 6 months (20.5% vs 50.9%), and a major molecular response at 12 months (22.5% vs 45.2%), with a median follow-up of 54.0 months. Furthermore, an Hb of 10 g/dl better distinguished DMR, EFS, PFS, and OS than the EUTOS, Sokal, and Hasford scores, and better predicted the responses and survivals in combination with 3M-EMR than 3M-EMR alone.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> This finding highlights the significance of anemia in CML-CP, and suggests that patients with anemia at diagnosis should be carefully monitored and might benefit from more potent TKIs if not achieving 3M-EMR.</p>