Microwave-assisted extraction in dry fruit of andean species Vaccinium meridionale: Experimental conditions on the recovery of total polyphenols
ABSTRACT Due to their nutraceutical properties, the fruits of the species Vaccinium meridionale, which inhabit the Andean region, are of scientific interest. Microwave-assisted extraction has been applied to different vegetal matrices for to extract efficiently polyphenolic compounds. In this work we study in microwave assisted extraction processes, the effect on the extraction of total polyphenols in dried fruits of Vaccinium meridionale, using response surface methodology. The main objective of this research was to analyze the relationships between power, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, time and ethanol concentration in aqueous media on the effectiveness of total polyphenols recovery in dry fruits of Vaccinium meridionale. A central composite design face-centered with three levels for each variable was used: P = 300 - 900 W; T = 70 -110 °C; L:Srat. = 30:1 - 70:1 w/w; t = 5 - 15 min; [EtOH] = 0 - 80%. In this sense, the effect of the input variables on the recovery of total polyphenols, the optimization process for maximum extraction, and the comparison to other solid-liquid extractions in terms of quantity of total polyphenols, are reported. It was found that the significant variables in the extraction process were ethanol concentration, temperature and time; the best yields were obtained in the range [EtOH] = 44 - 49%, T = 110 °C, and t = 10 - 15 min. In terms of quantity, time and consumption of energy, microwave-assisted extraction technique is more efficient than other solid-liquid extraction processes for the extraction of total polyphenols.