Measurement of active partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time after incubation of platelet-poor plasma and ZnO NPs.

aPTT was measured for (A) 20 nm- and (B) 100 nm-sized ZnO NPs. PT was measured for (C) 20 nm- and (D) 100 nm-sized ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs were conjugated with none (pristine), citrate, and L-serine to provide three distinctive charged surfaces. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate and repeated three times, by using three separate plasma sets. Results are means ± SEM, *p < 0.05 versus control.