Mathematical modelling for extraction of oil from <i>Dracocephalum kotschyi</i> seeds in supercritical carbon dioxide

<p>Extraction of oil from <i>Dracocephalum kotschyi</i> Boiss seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was designed using central composite design to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters including pressure, temperature, particle size and extraction time on the oil yield. Maximum extraction yield predicted from response surface method was 71.53% under the process conditions with pressure of 220 bar, temperature of 35 °C, particle diameter of 0.61 mm and extraction time of 130 min. Furthermore, broken and intact cells model was utilised to consider mass transfer kinetics of extracted natural materials. The results revealed that the model had a good agreement with the experimental data. The oil samples obtained via supercritical and solvent extraction methods were analysed by gas chromatography. The most abundant acid was linolenic acid. The results analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid contents of the oils obtained by the supercritical and solvent extraction techniques.</p>