M13 Bacteriophage Displaying DOPA on Surfaces: Fabrication of Various Nanostructured Inorganic Materials without Time-Consuming Screening Processes

M13 bacteriophage (phage) was engineered for the use as a versatile template for preparing various nanostructured materials via genetic engineering coupled to enzymatic chemical conversions. First, we engineered the M13 phage to display TyrGluGluGlu (YEEE) on the pVIII coat protein and then enzymatically converted the Tyr residue to 3,4-dihydroxyl-l-phenylalanine (DOPA). The DOPA-displayed M13 phage could perform two functions: assembly and nucleation. The engineered phage assembles various noble metals, metal oxides, and semiconducting nanoparticles into one-dimensional arrays. Furthermore, the DOPA-displayed phage triggered the nucleation and growth of gold, silver, platinum, bimetallic cobalt–platinum, and bimetallic iron–platinum nanowires. This versatile phage template enables rapid preparation of phage-based prototype devices by eliminating the screening process, thus reducing effort and time.