Low-dose estradiol and endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers in menopausal overweight/obese women

<p><b>Objective:</b> We aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose transdermal estrogen on endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers in menopausal overweight/obese women.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> We recruited 44 menopausal women (47–55 years; body mass index 27.5–34.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and divided them into estradiol (1 mg/day; <i>n</i> = 22) or placebo groups (<i>n</i> = 22). They were double-blinded, followed and treated for 3 months. At baseline and post-intervention, inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) and of vascular injury (activated circulating endothelial cells, CEC-a) and repair (endothelial progenitor cells, EPC) were quantified. Resting CECs (CEC-r) were also assessed. Microvascular reactivity and vasomotion were analyzed by laser-Doppler flowmetry.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Volunteers (51.8 ± 2.3 years; mean body mass index 31.5 ± 2.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) had been menopausal for 3 (range 2–5) years. After treatment, no changes were observed in the placebo group, while levels of CEC-r and EPC increased in the estradiol group. In this group, no changes in inflammatory biomarkers were observed but it required a lower cumulative dose of acetylcholine to achieve peak velocity during endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and there was increased endothelial-independent vasodilatation.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> The short-term use of low-dose transdermal estradiol therapy in overweight/obese menopausal women increased markers of vascular repair and improved microvascular reactivity without changing the inflammatory biomarkers.</p> <p><b>Clinical trial registration:</b> NCT01295892 at <a href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov" target="_blank">www.clinicaltrials.gov</a>.</p>