Long disordered regions of the C-terminal domain of Abelson tyrosine kinase have specific and additive functions in regulation and axon localization
Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is a key regulator of actin-related morphogenetic processes including axon guidance, where it functions downstream of several guidance receptors. While the long C-terminal domain (CTD) of Abl is required for function, its role is poorly understood. Here, a battery of mutants of Drosophila Abl was created that systematically deleted large segments of the CTD from Abl or added them back to the N-terminus alone. The functionality of these Abl transgenes was assessed through rescue of axon guidance defects and adult lethality in Abl loss-of-function, as well as through gain-of-function effects in sensitized slit or frazzled backgrounds that perturb midline guidance in the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord. Two regions of the CTD play important and distinct roles, but additive effects for other regions were also detected. The first quarter of the CTD, including a conserved PxxP motif and its surrounding sequence, regulates Abl function while the third quarter localizes Abl to axons. These regions feature long stretches of intrinsically disordered sequence typically found in hub proteins and are associated with diverse protein-protein interactions. Thus, the CTD of Abl appears to use these disordered regions to establish a variety of different signaling complexes required during formation of axon tracts.