Long-chain triglycerides-based self-nanoemulsifying oily formulations (SNEOFs) of darunavir with improved lymphatic targeting potential

<p>The current studies entail systematic development of SNEOFs containing long-chain triglycerides for improving lymphatic targeting of darunavir for complete inhibition of HIV progression. As per QbD-oriented approach for formulation development, the QTPP was defined and CQAs were earmarked. Preformulation equilibrium solubility and phase diagram studies, and risk assessment through FMEA studies identified Lauroglycol 90, Tween 80 and Transcutol HP as the lipid, emulgent and cosolvent, respectively, for formulating SNEOFs of darunavir. Systematic optimisation of SNEOFs was conducted using IV-optimal mixture design, and the optimised formulation was chosen through numerical desirability function. Characterisation of optimised SNEOFs exhibited globule size of 50 nm,  >85% drug release within 15 min and >75% permeation within 45 min. <i>In vivo</i> lymph cannulation and <i>in situ</i> intestinal perfusion studies indicated significant improvement in the drug absorption parameters from SNEOFs via intestinal lymphatic pathways, owing primarily to the presence of long-chain triglycerides. Also, <i>in vivo</i> pharmacokinetic studies in rat corroborated significant improvement in rate and extent of drug absorption into plasma vis-à-vis pure drug. In a nutshell, these studies indicate significant improvement in the biopharmaceutical attributes of a robust and stable SNEOFs formulation of darunavir for holistic management of viral loads in lymph and blood.</p>