Karyotype analysis in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae): chromosome numbers and heterochromatin

<div><p>ABSTRACT Chromosome numbers and heterochromatin banding pattern variability have been shown to be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies of different plant taxa. Bignonieae is the largest tribe of Bignoniaceae, composed mostly by woody climber species whose taxonomies are quite complicated. We reviewed and added new data concerning chromosome numbers in Bignonieae and performed the first analyses of heterochromatin banding patterns in that tribe based on the fluorochromes chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). We confirmed the predominant diploid number 2n = 40, as well as variations reported in the literature (dysploidy in Mansoa [2n = 38] and polyploidy in Dolichandra ungis-cati [2n = 80] and Pyrostegia venusta [2n = 80]). We also found a new cytotype for the genus Anemopaegma (Anemopaegma citrinum, 2n = 60) and provide the first chromosome counts for five species (Adenocalymma divaricatum, Amphilophium scabriusculum, Fridericia limae, F. subverticillata, and Xylophragma myrianthum). Heterochromatin analyses revealed only GC-rich regions, with six different arrangements of those bands. The A-type (one large and distal telomeric band) were the most common, although the presence and combinations of the other types appear to be the most promising for taxonomic studies.</p></div>