Inventaire des moustiques (Diptera : Culicidae) des îles du sud-ouest de l’océan Indien, Madagascar excepté — Une revue critique

<p><b>Inventory of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean, Madagascar excluded – A Critical Review</b>. The biodiversity of mosquitoes in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean is the concern of numerous publications. Here, we propose a synthetic inventory and the analysis of the mosquito diversity, based on the available literature. A comprehensive annotated checklist of mosquito species has been recently published on Madagascar; this is the reason why this land is excluded from our work. Studied area encompasses 28 tropical islands in the southern hemisphere: 4 islands in the Comoros archipelago, 5 Scattered Islands (îles Éparses), 5 in Mascarene, 11 in the Seychelles and 3 in the Chagos archipelago. In total, the mosquito list presents 73 valid species, of which 10 are Anophelinae and 63 Culicinae. The number of species that are distributed in these islands only is 19, i.e. 26%, which is a remarkable level for endemism. The richness in mosquito species in these islands is analysed through several aspects including geography, local speciation and natural or human dissemination. This updated inventory increases by 33% the number of known species by regard to the previous inventory published by Julvez & Mouchet in 1994. The historical responsibility of humans in the introduction of new mosquito species in these islands is strongly documented. For instance, the species with the highest distribution among islands are <i>Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus</i> and <i>Culex quinquefasciatus</i>. The islands belong to the afrotropical biogeographic area and, logically, the majority (63%) of mosquito species present phylogenetic affinities with continental Africa and/or Madagascar; interestingly, the number of species present in these islands and in Madagascar but absent in continental Africa is higher than the number of species present in these islands and in continental Africa but absent in Madagascar (respectively 12 and 2 species). Thanks to valuable increase in the sampling effort, our knowledge of the culicidian fauna is increasing in these islands that constitute indisputably hotspots of biodiversity.</p>