Influence of roasting on the chemopreventive potential of <i>in vitro</i> fermented almonds in LT97 colon adenoma cells

<p>The consumption of almonds may contribute to the prevention of colon cancer due to their unique composition of health promoting compounds. Since almonds are often consumed roasted, the impact of different roasting (R) conditions (R1 = 139.2 °C/25 min, R2 = 161.5 °C/20 min and R3 = 170.8 °C/15 min) on chemopreventive effects of <i>in vitro</i>-fermented almonds was analysed in LT97 colon adenoma cells. Fermentation supernatants (FS) of raw and roasted almonds had no genotoxic effects. FS obtained from raw or mildly roasted almonds (R1) significantly increased mRNA levels of <i>CAT</i> (4.6-fold), <i>SOD2</i> (5.6-fold) and <i>GSTP1</i> (3.9-fold) but not of <i>GPx1</i>. FS of almonds significantly reduced the growth of LT97 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 5% almonds FS increased the number of early apoptotic cells (17.4%, on average) and caspase-3 activity (4.9-fold, on average). The results indicate a chemopreventive potential of <i>in vitro</i>-fermented almonds which is largely independent of the roasting process.</p>