Inclusion bodies of human parainfluenza virus type 3 inhibit antiviral stress granule formation by shielding viral RNAs

<div><p>Viral invasion triggers the activation of the host antiviral response. Besides the innate immune response, stress granules (SGs) also act as an additional defense response to combat viral replication. However, many viruses have evolved various strategies to suppress SG formation to facilitate their own replication. Here, we show that viral mRNAs derived from human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) infection induce SG formation in an eIF2α phosphorylation- and PKR-dependent manner in which viral mRNAs are sequestered and viral replication is inhibited independent of the interferon signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that inclusion body (IB) formation by the interaction of the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) of HPIV3 correlated with SG suppression. In addition, co-expression of P with N<sub>L478A</sub> (a point mutant of N, which is unable to form IBs with P) or with NΔN10 (lacking N-terminal 10 amino acids of N, which could form IBs with P but was unable to synthesize or shield viral RNAs) failed to inhibit SG formation, suggesting that inhibition of SG formation also correlates with the capacity of IBs to synthesize and shield viral RNAs. Therefore, we provide a model whereby viral IBs escape the antiviral effect of SGs by concealing their own newly synthesized viral RNAs and offer new insights into the emerging role of IBs in viral replication.</p></div>