Impact of Electrical Conductivity on the Electrochemical Performances of Layered Structure Lithium Trivanadate (LiV<sub>3–<i>x</i></sub>M<sub><i>x</i></sub>O<sub>8</sub>, M= Zn/Co/Fe/Sn/Ti/Zr/Nb/Mo, <i>x</i> = 0.01–0.1) as Cathode Materials for Energy Storage

Pristine trivanadate (LiV<sub>3</sub>O<sub>8</sub>) and doped lithium trivanadate (LiV<sub>3–<i>x</i></sub>M<sub><i>x</i></sub>O<sub>8</sub>, M = Zn/Co/Fe/Sn/Ti/Zr/Nb/Mo, <i>x</i> = 0.01/0.05/0.1 M) compounds were prepared by a simple reflux method in the presence of the polymer, Pluronic P123, as the chelating agent. For comparison, pristine LiV<sub>3</sub>O<sub>8</sub> alone was also prepared in the absence of the chelating agent. The Rietveld-refined X-ray diffraction patterns shows all compounds to exist in the layered monoclinic LiV<sub>3</sub>O<sub>8</sub> phase belonging to the space group of <i>P</i>2<sub>1</sub>/<i>m</i>. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the particles to exhibit layers of submicron-sized particles. The electrochemical performances of the coin cells were compared at a current density of 30 mA/g in the voltage window of 2–4 V. The cells made with compounds LiV<sub>2.99</sub>Zr<sub>0.01</sub>O<sub>8</sub> and LiV<sub>2.95</sub>Sn<sub>0.05</sub>O<sub>8</sub> show a high discharge capacity of 245 ± 5 mA h/g, with an excellent stability of 98% at the end of the 50th cycle. The second cycle discharge capacity of 398 mA h/g was obtained for the compound LiV<sub>2.99</sub>Fe<sub>0.01</sub>O<sub>8</sub>, and its capacity retention was found to be 58% after 50 cycles. The electrochemical performances of the cells were correlated with the electrical properties and the changes in the structural parameters of the compounds.