Herbicidal activity of pure compound isolated from rhizosphere inhabiting <i>Aspergillus flavus</i>

<p>In the quest for bioactive natural products of fungal origin, <i>Aspergillus flavus</i> was isolated from rhizosphere of <i>Mentha piperita</i> using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czapec Yeast Broth (CYB) nutrient media for metabolites production. In total, three different metabolites were purified using HPLC/LCMS and the structures were established using 500 Varian NMR experiments. Further the isolated metabolites in different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) were tested for herbicidal activity using Completely Randomized design (CRD) against the seeds of <i>Silybum marianum</i> and <i>Avena fatua</i> which are major threats to wheat crop in Pakistan. Among the isolated metabolites, one compound was found active against the test weed species whose activity is reported in the present work. The chemical name of the compound is 2-(1, 4-dihydroxybutan-2-yl)-1, 3-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethoxyanthracene-9, 10(4a<i>H</i>, 9a<i>H</i>)-dione with mass of 388. Results showed that all seeds germinated in control treatment; however, with the metabolite treated, the growth was retarded to different levels in all parts of the weeds. At a dose of 1000 μg/mL of the pure compound, 100% seeds of <i>S. marianum</i> and 60% seeds of <i>A. fatua</i> were inhibited. Interestingly, the pure compound exhibited less inhibition of 10% towards the seeds of common wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i>).</p>