H7 Hemagglutinin nanoparticles retain immunogenicity after >3 months of 25°C storage

<div><p>Vaccine distribution infrastructure remains inadequate in many parts of the world, and it is estimated that up to 40–50% of all vaccine doses are wasted in certain countries. Vaccines that can maintain viability outside of the cold chain would decrease vaccine wastage and increase immunization rates in regions of the world with underdeveloped vaccine distribution infrastructure. We examined the potential of crosslinked protein nanoparticles, made from trimerized influenza hemagglutinin (3HA), to maintain immunogenicity after cold-chain-independent storage. We found that the nanoparticles could be stored for 112 days at room temperature without any loss in hemagglutinating activity or immunogenicity, and that nanoparticles could be stored at 37°C for 2 weeks without any loss in hemagglutinating activity. As vaccine development moves towards the use of recombinant subunit antigens, our results demonstrate the potential of crosslinked antigen nanoparticles as an immunogenic vehicle for bringing effective vaccines to underdeveloped regions outside of the cold chain.</p></div>