Gut mucosa of paediatric patients with IBD has an increased frequencies of enterocytes producing TNF-α and expressing HLA Class I molecules.

<p>Enterocytes (EpCam positive cells) that spontaneously produced TNF-α and expressed HLA Class I were evaluated in intestinal biopsies from young subjects with Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and non-IBD healthy controls (HC). Cells were collected and stained as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0182313#pone.0182313.g001" target="_blank">Fig 1</a>. Overall percentage and representative dot plots of EpCam and TNF-α (<b>A and B</b>),and of EpCam and HLA-Class I (<b>C and D</b>) double positive cells in pooled intestinal biopsies from each group are shown. Horizontal bars are the median values. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to evaluate statistical significant differences.</p>