Geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope composition of Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Jueluotage Orogenic Belt: implications for the tectonic evolution of Eastern Tianshan, China

The major and trace element, and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the Carboniferous Qi’eshan, Wutongwozi, and Yamansu volcanic rocks from the northern and southern parts of the Jueluotage Orogenic Belt in East Tianshan, China, were analysed to understand their genesis and geodynamic implications. The early Carboniferous Qi’eshan basalts are characterized by high Al2O3, with La/Sm (1.38–1.79) and Ba/La (27.06–58.76) values higher than those of typical normal mid-ocean ridge basalt. They are relatively enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and depleted in high field strength elements. Overall, their initial Nd–Sr isotopic compositions are εNd(t) = (5.6–7.0) and Isr = 0.70397–0.70429, implying the magma originated from a mantle wedge source that was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. In contrast, the late Carboniferous Wutongwozi basalts have lower Ba/La (4.86–12.82), La/Nb (0.87–2.45), and LILE concentrations. They have the isotopic characteristics of depleted asthenosphere, relatively high and heterogeneous εNd(t) (9.3–9.4), and high Isr (0.70471–0.70533). Thus, the late Carboniferous Wutongwozi basalts may have been derived from the partial melting of mantle sources during asthenospheric upwelling. The early Carboniferous Yamansu acid volcanic rocks are characterized by high Mg# (46–48) and Lu/Y (~0.15), and low K2O/Na2O (0.01–0.20), similar to M-type granites. However, their εNd(t) (5.0–5.5) and Isr (0.70642–0.70768) values are lower than those of depleted mantle, indicating they were contaminated by lower crustal material. The magma source originated from a mantle-derived magma that was contaminated by middle Tianshan massif in a continental margin arc setting. Based on the results and previous field-based studies, we conclude that the Carboniferous volcanics in the Jueluotage Orogenic Belt formed in a complex trench–arc–basin setting in the Kuguertage–Aqikuduke Suture Zone.