Genetic diversity in cytochrome c oxidase I gene of Anopheles mosquitoes

Genetic diversity in cytochrome c oxidase I (coxI) among 7 species of Anopheles mosquitoes from Pakistan, and 37 species from different geographical regions of the world, was recorded. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) analysis revealed a clear gap between intraspecific and interspecific distances of 7 species from Pakistan. However, genetic distances of 37 Anopheles species failed to adequately differentiate species in a global context. Intraspecific and interspecific divergences for 7 Anopheles species of Pakistan varied from 0.0% to 2.5% (mean = 0.49%) and 8% to 22.3% (mean = 12.77%), respectively. Similarly, intraspecific distances for 37 species from different parts of world ranged from 0.0% to 11.2% (mean = 0.65%) while values of interspecific divergences ranged from 3.4% to 35% (mean = 11.75%). Although phylogenetic tree revealed separate clades for 7 Anopheles species of Pakistan, it failed to produce separate clades for 37 species of the world. It is concluded that although standard barcode region is helpful for identifying Anopheles mosquitoes, combination of multi-locus approaches and morphology may be required to accurately identify species in this genus.