Genetic analysis of <i>Bactrocera zonata</i> (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations from India based on <i>cox1</i> and <i>nad1</i> gene sequences

<p>The peach fruit fly, <i>Bactrocera zonata</i>, is among the most serious and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in many parts of the world under genus <i>Bactrocera</i>. In the present study, the genetic structure, diversity and demographic history of <i>B. zonata</i> in India were inferred from mitochondrial <i>cytochrome oxidase 1</i> (<i>cox1</i>) and <i>NADH dehydrogenase 1</i> (<i>nad1</i>) sequences. The efficiency of DNA barcodes for identification of <i>B. zonata</i> was also tested. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (<i>H</i>), haplotype diversity (<i>Hd</i>), nucleotide diversity (<i>π</i>) and average number of nucleotide differences (<i>k</i>)] of <i>B. zonata</i> populations across India maintain high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Non-significant negative correlation between pairwise <i>F</i>st and geographic distance suggests a high level of gene flow among studied populations of <i>B. zonata</i>. The possibility of sudden expansion of <i>B. zonata</i> revealed through mismatch distribution analysis as well as negative Tajima’s <i>D</i> and Fu’s <i>F</i>s values further supported by star-like network of haplotypes. DNA barcoding analysis suggests that <i>B. zonata</i> specimens can be clearly differentiated from other species with 100% accuracy of identification. Therefore, <i>cytochrome oxidase 1</i> (<i>cox1</i>) barcode sequences generated in the present study could be a valuable source for the rapid identification and global population genetic study of <i>B. zonata.</i></p>