Gene expression profiling of replicative and induced senescence
Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced senescence, and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-induced senescence in order to profile the pathways controlling various types of senescence. Overall, the pathways common to all 4 types of senescence were related to inflammation and the innate immune system. It was also evident that 5-aza-induced senescence mirrors natural replicative senescence due to telomere shortening. We also examined the prevalence of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors in the RNA-seq data, showing that it is a common characteristic of all 4 types of senescence. In addition, we could discriminate changes in gene expression due to quiescence during cellular senescence from those that were specific to senescence.