Gas Hydrates Phase Equilibria and Formation from High Concentration NaCl Brines up to 200 MPa

Gas hydrate phase equilibrium and kinetics at high NaCl concentrations (near and at saturation in solution) and very high pressures (up to ∼200 MPa) are investigated to study the interplay of hydrate formation and salt precipitation. Limited experimental data above 80 MPa exist for hydrate phase equilibrium in high salinity systems. This study reveals the unusual formation of gas hydrates under these extreme conditions of high salinity and very high pressure. In particular, the results demonstrate that hydrates can form from saturated salt solutions, and the formation of hydrates and salt precipitation are competing effects. It is determined that hydrates will remain in equilibrium with a saturated salt solution, with the amount of salt precipitation determined by the amount of hydrates formed. These data are essential fundamental data for gas hydrates applications in the oil and gas production flow assurance and seawater desalination.