Formation and Occurrence of Iodinated Tyrosyl Dipeptides in Disinfected Drinking Water

Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly toxic, but few precursors of I-DBPs have been investigated. Tyrosine-containing biomolecules are ubiquitous in surface water. Here we investigated the formation of I-DBPs from the chloramination of seven tyrosyl dipeptides (tyrosylglycine, tyrosylalanine, tyrosylvaline, tyrosylhistidine, tyrosylglutamine, tyrosylglutamic acid, and tyrosylphenylalanine) in the presence of potassium iodide. High resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses of the benchtop reaction solutions found that all seven precursors formed both I- and Cl-substituted tyrosyl dipeptide products. Iodine substitutions occurred on the 3- and 3,5-positions of the tyrosyl-phenol ring while chlorine substituted on the free amino group. To reach the needed sensitivity to detect iodinated tyrosyl dipeptides in authentic waters, we developed a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS method with multiple reaction monitoring mode and solid phase extraction. HPLC-MS/MS analysis of tap and corresponding raw water samples, collected from three cities, identified four iodinated peptides, 3-I-/3,5-di-I-Tyr-Ala and 3-I-/3,5-di-I-Tyr-Gly, in the tap waters but not in the raw waters. The corresponding precursors, Tyr-Ala and Tyr-Gly, were also detected in the same tap and raw water samples. This study demonstrates that iodinated dipeptides exist as DBPs in drinking water.