Flow field development throughout wing stroke versus petiolation from Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight

Chordwise planes of instantaneous streamlines coloured with normalised spanwise vorticity at 25%, 50% and 75% span throughout the wing stroke for P = 1, 2, and 3; wing upper surface is shown with near-surface skin friction lines coloured by in-plane normalised velocity magnitude; the wing length is scaled to twice its actual length in this figure for clarity.