Fish habitat and fisheries of Brahmaputra River in Assam, India

River Brahmaputra is a trans-boundary major river flowing through the northeastern state of Assam, India and is the lifeline of its natural fisheries. In the present article, we discuss eco-hydrobiology (including sediment quality and energy flow) of River Brahmaputra and its important tributaries in the state of Assam, India based on extensive synoptic studies conducted from April 1996 to March 1998, duly collated with past and present studies. Salient aspects of fisheries of the river system in the state (ichthyofauna, biogeography, conservation status, migratory and exotic fish species, trends in fish yield and species composition, fishing crafts and gear) are discussed in light of past and present studies conducted by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Indian Fisheries Research Institute and others. Fisheries of floodplain wetlands (beels) located in the Brahmaputra valley in the state and their interaction with the river system are also discussed.