Figure S1; Figure S2; Figure S3; Figure S4; Figure S5 from Dynamical state transitions into addictive behaviour and their early-warning signals

Figure S1. Alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) paradigm and sample intensive longitudinal data (ILD). (a) Schematic of the ADE paradigm: baseline (BASE) followed by two weeks of deprivation (DEPwk1 and DEPwk2) and four weeks of ethanol (EtOH) reintroduction (ERwk1-4), and time schedule. (b) Drinking (Water, 5%, 10%, 20%, total EtOH) and locomotor activity (LA) traces for a sample rat during experimental periods as an example of ILD. NB: During deprivation (red shaded area) all bottles contained water only; accesses shown then are water and not EtOH.; Figure S2. Average daily consumption of a) 5%, b) 10%, and c) 20% solutions, and d) average preference during the course of the experiment, demonstrating the alcohol deprivation effect. Regression lines showing projected trajectories and were fitted using the curves for averages from day 5-56 (until deprivation). Error bars denote standard deviation. Data from days 1-5 was lost due to sensor calibration issues.; Figure S3. Wavelet plots for all animals showing the distribution of power of the locomotor activity signal across different frequencies and how it changed over time (experimental periods). Values of moduli of the wavelet coefficients (powers) are colour coded according to their magnitude (blue indicates a low and red a large value), and the ordinates are represented on a logarithmic scale. Increased power at low frequencies was observed in DEPwk1, showing instability in ultradian rhythms and suggestive of the system being near a tipping point.; Figure S4. Limit cycle trajectories (left) and probability density maps (right) of rat locomotor activity over experimental periods. In BASE, plots show a large clear circle indicating stable circadian rhythms. In DEPwk1 trajectories become diffuse suggesting instability. From circles subsequently decrease in size, and once again become clear circles, suggestive of a stabilisation into a new state (DEPwk2 – ERwk4).; Figure S5. Moment of inertia about centre of mass (average squared radius) for limit cycles shown in figure S3 confirms the decrease in the size of the cycle across experimental periods. Note that the squared radius in DEPwk1 is not significantly smaller than that in BASE, different from the observation for the circadian power (figure 5d), presumably because this quantity include increased ultradian power in DEPwk1 (figure 5c). Error bars show S.E.M. *** p < 0.001; ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05.