Figure S13 from Comparative genomic analysis of the ‘psuedofungus’ <i>Hyphochytrium catenoides</i>

Eukaryotic microbes have three primary mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and energy: phagotrophy, photosynthesis and osmotrophy. Traits associated with the latter two functions arose independently multiple times in the eukaryotes. Fungi successfully coupled osmotrophy with filamentous growth, similar traits are also manifested in the Pseudofungi (oomycetes and hyphochytriomycetes). Both the Fungi and the Pseudofungi encompass a diversity of plant and animal parasites. Genome-sequencing efforts have focused on host-associated microbes (mutualistic symbionts or parasites), providing limited comparisons with free-living relatives. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of a hyphochytriomycete ‘pseudofungus’; <i>Hyphochytrium catenoides</i>. Using phylogenomic approaches, we identify genes of recent viral ancestry, with related viral derived genes also present on the genomes of oomycetes, suggesting a complex history of viral coevolution and integration across the Pseudofungi. <i>H. catenoides</i> has a complex life cycle involving diverse filamentous structures and a flagellated zoospore with a single anterior-tinselate flagellum. We use genome comparisons, drug sensitivity analysis and high-throughput culture arrays to investigate the ancestry of oomycete/pseudofungal characteristics and metabolic traits, demonstrating that many of the genetic features associated with pathogenic traits evolved specifically within the oomycete radiation. Comparative genomics also identified differences in the repertoire of genes associated with filamentous growth between the Fungi and the Pseudofungi, including differences in vesicle trafficking systems, cell-wall synthesis pathways and motor protein repertoire, demonstrating that unique cellular systems underpinned the convergent evolution of filamentous osmotrophic growth in these two eukaryotic groups.