Figure 8: Effects of Acute VNS on Hemodynamic Variables

Values are mean ± SEM. Differences were tested by using a paired Student's t-test. ∗p < 0.05 vs. pre-stimulation. <b>(A)</b> Representative time series of hemodynamic variables under acute VNS in a rat at 5 weeks after SU5416 injection. Heart rate (HR) decreases soon after initiation of VNS, whereas no significant changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), cardiac output (CO), and left ventricular pressure (LVP) are observed. <b>(B–F)</b> Effects of acute VNS on hemodynamic variables. The <b>white columns</b> represent pre-stimulation, and the <b>blue</b> and <b>red columns</b> represent post SS (n = 5) and VNS (n = 4), respectively. CI = cardiac index; LVEDP = left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; other abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 3.