Figure 4: Effects of Chronic VNS on Histology of PA

Values are mean ± SEM. Differences were tested by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer test. ∗∗p < 0.01 vs. CTRL. ‡p < 0.01 vs. SS. <b>(A)</b> Representative photomicrographs of Verhoeff–van Gieson staining. <b>Arrowheads</b> indicate occlusive pulmonary artery (PA). <b>(B)</b> Pulmonary arterial occlusions are graded as grade 0 (no luminal occlusion; <b>white</b>), grade 1 (< 50% occlusion; <b>light gray</b>), and grade 2 (≧50% occlusion; <b>dark gray</b>). Percentage of occlusive PAs with outer diameter (OD) ≦50 μm <b>(left)</b> and 50 < OD <100 μm <b>(right)</b>. Representative photomicrographs of <b>(C)</b> immunostained CD68-positive cells, <b>(D)</b> Ki67-positive cells, and <b>(E)</b> terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells are shown (n = 4 in each group). Arrowheads in <b>(E)</b> indicate TUNEL-positive cells. Other abbreviations as in Figure 2.