Evolution of stipules/stipular elements with respect to their number (0 to >2) and size (relative to the true leaves) in Rubieae.

<p>Ancestral character states reconstructed over a set of posterior trees using maximum parsimony (left pie charts) and Bayesian inference (right pie charts) are shown on a simplified majority rule consensus tree; therefore, terminal pie charts often show reconstructed character states at the crown node of small terminal clades (indicated by names in normal print) and only rarely the character states of a single accession (indicated by names in italics). Smaller pie charts indicate reconstructions under a model of ordered character state evolution; these are shown only in cases where reconstructions deviate considerably from those using unordered character states (see text for details). Abbreviations of major clades: <b>A</b>, Asperula Clade; <b>AC</b>, Asperula-Cruciata Clade; <b>AS</b>, Asperula-Sherardia Clade; <b>C</b>, Cymogalia Clade; <b>G</b>, Galiinae Clade; <b>Ga</b>, Galium Clade; <b>K</b>, Kelloggiinae Clade; <b>R</b>, Rubiinae Clade.</p>