Evolution of stipules/stipular elements with respect to their number (0 to >2) and size (relative to the true leaves) in Rubieae.

Ancestral character states reconstructed over a set of posterior trees using maximum parsimony (left pie charts) and Bayesian inference (right pie charts) are shown on a simplified majority rule consensus tree; therefore, terminal pie charts often show reconstructed character states at the crown node of small terminal clades (indicated by names in normal print) and only rarely the character states of a single accession (indicated by names in italics). Smaller pie charts indicate reconstructions under a model of ordered character state evolution; these are shown only in cases where reconstructions deviate considerably from those using unordered character states (see text for details). Abbreviations of major clades: A, Asperula Clade; AC, Asperula-Cruciata Clade; AS, Asperula-Sherardia Clade; C, Cymogalia Clade; G, Galiinae Clade; Ga, Galium Clade; K, Kelloggiinae Clade; R, Rubiinae Clade.