Evaluation of the methylene blue addition in binary polymeric systems composed by poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 934P using quality by design: rheological, textural, and mucoadhesive analysis

This study describes the investigation about the physicochemical behavior of methylene blue (Mb) addition to systems containing poloxamer 407 (Polox), Carbopol 934P (Carb), intended to be locally used by photodynamic therapy. A factorial design 23 (plus center point) was used to analyze the rheological, mucoadhesive and textural properties of the preparations. Systems containing the lower concentrations of Polox (15 and 17.5%, w/w) exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of rheopexy. On the other hand, at higher Polox concentration (20%, w/w) the systems display plastic flow and thixotropy. Carb and Mb exhibited a negative influence for the consistency and flow behavior index, due to the interaction between them. For most of the formulations, the increase of Polox and Mb content significantly increased storage modulus, loss modulus and dynamic viscosity. The systems display a sol–gel transition temperature, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 29–37 °C. Increasing the temperature and the polymer concentration, the compressional properties of systems significantly increased. The mucoadhesion was noted to all formulations, except to systems composed by 15% (w/w) of Polox. The analyses enabled to understand and predict the performance of formulations and the polymer–Mb interactions, tailoring to the suit systems (Polox/Carb/Mb): 17.5/0.50/0.20 and 20/0.15/0.25.