Evaluation of <i>in vivo</i> cytogenetic toxicity of europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) in male and female Swiss albino mice

<p>Our group already demonstrated that europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) show none or mild toxicity in C57BL/6 mice even at high dose and exhibited excellent pro-angiogenic activity towards <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> models. In the present study, we evaluated the <i>in vivo</i> cytogenetic toxicity of intraperitoneally administered EHNs (12.5–250 mg/kg/b.w.) in male and female Swiss albino mice by analyzing chromosomal aberrations (CAs), mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN) from bone marrow and peripheral blood. Furthermore, we performed the cytogenetic toxicity study of EHNs towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, in order to compare with the <i>in vivo</i> results. The results of CA assay of mice treated with EHNs (12.5–125 mg/kg/b.w.) showed no significant change in the formation of aberrant metaphases compared to the control group. Also, there was no significant difference in the number of dividing cells between the control group and EHNs-treated groups observed by MI study, suggesting the non-cytotoxicity of EHNs. Additionally, FACS study revealed that EHNs do not arrest cells at any phase of cell cycle in the mouse model. Furthermore, MN test of both bone marrow and peripheral blood showed no significant differences in the induction of MNs when compared with the control group. <i>In vitro</i> results from CHO cells also support our <i>in vivo</i> observations. Considering the role of angiogenesis by EHNs and the absence of its genotoxicity in mouse model, we strongly believe the future application of EHNs in treating various diseases, where angiogenesis plays an important role such as cardiovascular diseases, ischemic diseases and wound healing.</p>