Enzymatic hydrolysis of the Eisenia andrei earthworm: Characterization and evaluation of its properties
Some studies have carried out in order to retrieve proteins from the by-product of animal-processing industries. Earthworms are rich in protein and usually are used in animal feed. Thus, this study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis process of Eisenia andrei earthworms by employing Alcalase enzyme. Using the response surface methodology, we evaluated the following conditions: temperature, hydrolysis time, stirring speed, and enzyme/substrate ratio. The optimal conditions for the experimental design were determined through the analysis of the foaming and emulsifying properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and antioxidant activity. The results demonstrate that the highest degree of hydrolysis (i.e., 92%) was obtained under the following conditions: pH, 9.5; temperature, 25 °C; hydrolysis time, 2.25 h; stirring speed, 200 rpm; and enzyme/substrate ratio, 1.77%, using Alcalase enzyme. Evaluation of the amino acid composition under these conditions revealed higher concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine. The in vitro protein digestibility of the hydrolysate was approximately 73%. There were no significant improvements in either foam stability or emulsification after enzymatic hydrolysis. Additional studies on the antioxidant activity are required. This bioproduct could potentially serve as a promising supplementary food product.