Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization via Bis-Intercalation of a Naphthylimide-Functionalized Viologen Dimer

2007-09-15T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Eli G. Hvastkovs Daniel A. Buttry
The synthesis and DNA binding properties of a bis-naphthyl imide tetracationic diviologen compound NI(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>V<sup>2+</sup>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>6</sub>V<sup>2+</sup>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>NI (where V<sup>2+</sup> = 4,4‘-bipyridinium and NI = naphthyl imide, NIV) are described. Binding to thiolated ssDNA and dsDNA immobilized at Au electrodes was characterized using the electrochemical response for reduction of the V<sup>2+</sup> state to the V<sup>+</sup> (viologen radical cation) state. Isotherms and binding constants for this molecule to both forms of immobilized DNA were generated in this fashion. The character of the binding isotherm for dsDNA suggests bis-intercalation. Under high saline conditions, the diviologen molecule dissociated 160 times slower from dsDNA compared to ssDNA. Slow dissociation kinetics from dsDNA (<i>k</i><sub>d</sub> =7.0 × 10<sup>-5</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>) allow this molecule to be used as an effective DNA hybridization indicator.