Electrochemical Deposition of Bis(<i>N,N′-</i>diphenylaminoaryl) Substituted Ferrocenes, and Their Application as a Hole-Injection Layer on Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes

The synthesis, spectro-electrochemical study, and electrochemical polymerization of bis(diphenylamino) substituted ferrocenes (Fcs), including the family of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole (OXD) bridged 1,1′-[<i>p</i>-(Ph<sub>2</sub>N)(C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>4</sub>)<sub><i>n</i></sub>OXD]<sub>2</sub>Fc and the vinylene bridged ferrocene 1,1′-[<i>p</i>-(Ph<sub>2</sub>N)(C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>4</sub>)-(<i>E</i>)-CHCH]<sub>2</sub>Fc, have been carried out. The ferrocene compounds underwent three stepwise one-electron oxidations to form the (3+) radical cations that further electrochemically polymerized on a Pt or an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. The polymeric layers showed extremely good hole-injection properties. The polymeric light emitting devices (PLEDs) of ITO/ED-1,1′-[Ph<sub>2</sub>N(C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>OXD]<sub>2</sub>Fc/PVK:Ir(PPy)<sub>3</sub>:PBD/Mg-Ag showed a turn-on voltage (at 100 cd/m<sup>2</sup>) of 11 V, with a maximum brightness of 27 700 cd/m<sup>2</sup>. The turn-on voltage was 1.5 V lower than that of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) based PLED and 2 V lower than the corresponding electrochemically deposited poly(4-(<i>N,N</i>-diphenylamino)styrene) based PLED.