Electrical and Physical Characterization of Bilayer Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Molecular Layers

We have used flip chip lamination (FCL) to form monolayer and bilayer molecular junctions of carboxylic acid-containing molecules with Cu atom incorporation. Carboxylic acid-terminated monolayers are self-assembled onto ultrasmooth Au by using thiol chemistry and grafted onto n-type Si. Prior to junction formation, monolayers are physically characterized by using polarized infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, confirming the molecular quality and functional group termination. FCL was used to form monolayer junctions onto H-terminated Si or bilayer junctions of carboxylic acid monolayers on Au and Si. From the electrical measurements, we find that the current through the junction is attenuated as the effective molecular length within the junction increases, indicating that molecules are electrically active within the junction. We find that the electronic transport through the bilayer junction saturates at very thick effective distances possibly because of another electron-transport mechanism that is not nonresonant tunneling as a result of trapped defects or sequential tunneling. In addition, bilayer junctions are fabricated with and without Cu atoms, and we find that the electron transport is not distinguishably different when Cu atoms are within the bilayer.