Effects of NAC on Cd-induced impairment of placental vascular space.

All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with CdCl2 (1.0 mg/kg) daily from GD13 to GD17. In NAC+Cd group, pregnant mice were i.p. injected with NAC (1.0 g/kg) daily from GD12 to GD17, one dose (300 mg/kg) at 8 h before CdCl2 injection, one (400 mg/kg) at 30 min before CdCl2 injection, another (300 mg/kg) at 8 h after CdCl2 injection. Placentas were collected on GD 18. (A) Placental cross sections were stained with H & E. Original magnification: 200×. (B) Vascular area in the labyrinthine layer was estimated from two nonconsecutive sections in each placenta using the public domain NIH Image J Program. The blood sinusoid area (%) was calculated as the ratio between the number of pixels covered by the area defined by the threshold and the overall number of pixels in the image. (C) Placental CD34 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Representative photomicrographs of histological specimens in the labyrinthine layer among different groups. Original magnification: 200×. Arrows indicate CD34-positive blood vessels. The images using black line were captured at magnification of 400×. (D) CD34-positive blood vessels were counted. (B and D) All data were expressed as means ± SEM. (N = 14~20). * P<0.05, **P<0.01.