Effect of ultrasonic waves on crocin and safranal content and expression of their controlling genes in suspension culture of saffron (<i>Crocus sativus </i>L.)

<p>The expression of biosynthesis controlling genes of crocin and safranal in saffron (<i>Crocus sativus</i>) can be influenced by ultrasonic waves. Sterilized saffron corms were cultured in a ½-MS medium supplemented by 2-4-D and BAP.  Saffron callus cells were treated with ultrasonic waves in a cellular suspension culture under optimal growth conditions. The samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after treatment in three replications. The secondary metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the gene expression was analysed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that this elicitor can influence the expressions of genes <i>CsBCH, CsLYC</i> and <i>CsGT</i>-<i>2</i>; the ultrasonic waves acted as an effective mechanical stimulus to the suspension cultures. The analysis of variance of the ultrasonically produced amounts of safranal and crocin indicates that there is a significant difference between once- and twice-treated samples in that the amount of safranal was the highest within the samples taken from the twice-treated suspension culture at 72 h after the ultrasound treatment, and the crocin was maximised after 24 h passed the twice-applied ultrasound treatment.</p>