Effect of food deprivation of L5 Pieris brassicae on the performance of herbivores and parasitoids.

Pupal fresh mass (A) and egg to pupa development time (B) of Pieris brassicae, and adult fresh mass (C) and egg to adult development time (D) of Cotesia glomerata females (black bars) and males (white bars). Bars (means + SE) with different letters are significantly different from each other (Tukey multiple comparisons). Sample sizes per cage (five cages per food deprivation treatment) were for P. brassicae: controls (constant food access): 20; deprived of food for one day: 18–19; two days: 12–20: three days: 6–11; four days: 0–5, and for C. glomerata-parasitized hosts: controls: 8; deprived of food for one day: 7–8; two days: 6–8; three days: 4–8; four days 3–6. For C. glomerata, adult fresh mass and development time was determined for the first 5 males and 5 females eclosing from each host cluster.