Effect of food deprivation of L5 <i>Pieris brassicae</i> on the performance of herbivores and parasitoids.

<p>Pupal fresh mass (A) and egg to pupa development time (B) of <i>Pieris brassicae</i>, and adult fresh mass (C) and egg to adult development time (D) of <i>Cotesia glomerata</i> females (black bars) and males (white bars). Bars (means + SE) with different letters are significantly different from each other (Tukey multiple comparisons). Sample sizes per cage (five cages per food deprivation treatment) were for <i>P</i>. <i>brassicae</i>: controls (constant food access): 20; deprived of food for one day: 18–19; two days: 12–20: three days: 6–11; four days: 0–5, and for <i>C</i>. <i>glomerata-</i>parasitized hosts: controls: 8; deprived of food for one day: 7–8; two days: 6–8; three days: 4–8; four days 3–6. For <i>C</i>. <i>glomerata</i>, adult fresh mass and development time was determined for the first 5 males and 5 females eclosing from each host cluster.</p>