Effect of chronic consumption of pistachios (<i>Pistacia vera L.</i>) on glucose metabolism in pre-diabetics and type 2 diabetics: A systematic review

<p>Pistachio is a nut with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyphenols and carotenoids content, and the synergism between these compounds appears to affect glucose metabolism. In this systematic review we analyzed studies in which the effect of chronic consumption of pistachio on markers of glucose metabolism was evaluated in pre-diabetic and type 2 diabetics. We used the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Lilacs databases. The research terms used were pistachio, pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, blood glucose, hyperglycemia and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Four articles were selected, of which three tested the intake of 50 to 57 g of pistachio/day and one 20% of the daily caloric intake, for a period of 1 to 4 months. Studies reported a decrease in fasting blood glucose, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and fructosamine, but no change in HbA1c. Lower concentrations of miR-192 and miR-375 were also found, which correlated positively with HOMA-IR. The synergism between PUFA, MUFA, polyphenols and carotenoids present in pistachios can modulate specific miRNA, increasing insulin sensitivity through the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. This modulation can be used as a tool to monitor the response to interventions, favoring the prevention and treatment of complications related to diabetes.</p>