Effect of Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) of Wheat and Barley Supplemented with Exogenous Enzyme Blend on Growth Performance, Gut Microbial, Pancreatic Enzyme Activities, Expression of Glucose Transporter (SGLT1) and Mucin Producer (MUC2) Genes of Broiler Chickens
ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 625 broiler chicks (Ross 308) for 5 repetitions (25 birds per each replicated) on the 5 treatments diet. Treatments included two different types of cereal grains (wheat, and barley) with or without an enzyme supplementation along with a corn-based diet as control group. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and were fed in two periods of starter and grower. Experimental traits were consisted growth performance, ileal flora numeration, villus morphology in 3 parts of the intestine, digesta viscosity and pancreatic enzyme activity, and determining the gene expression level of glucose transporter (SGLT1) and mucin producer (MUC2) in the jejunum. Results indicated that inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet with or without exo-enzymes blend on growth performance traits were significant (p<0.01). Feed intake and average daily gain in wheat diet was lower, conversely FCR was higher than other groups (p<0.01). Maximum microbial count were observed in wheat and barley diets and minimum were observed in enzyme supplemented diets respectively (p<0.01). Control group and enzyme supplemented diets had minimum counting of gram negative, coliform and clostridium, but maximum counting of lactobacilli and bifidobacter were observed in enzyme supplemented diets (p<0.01). Viscosity and activities of pancreatic a-amylase and lipase were significantly increased in chicks fed wheat and barley when compared to the control group fed on corn (p<0.01). Feeding wheat and barley diets reduced villus height in different parts of the small intestine when compared to those fed on a corn diet (p<0.01). Gene expression level of glucose transporter (SGLT1) and mucin producer (MUC2) in jejunum was significantly affected by the inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet with or without exo-enzymes blend (p<0.01). In conclusion, the inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet without enzyme supplementation has an adverse effect on growth, ileal microflora villi morphology, digesta viscosity, pancreatic enzyme activity, and gene expression level of nutrient transporters. However, enzyme supplemented to wheat and barley diets significantly improved those traits, and restored the negative effects.