Ecotoxicological effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on the freshwater cladocerans <i>Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis</i>

<p>Toxicities of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) to the neotropical freshwater cladocerans <i>Ceriodaphnia silvestrii</i> and <i>Daphnia similis</i> were studied under laboratory conditions. Acute exposures to BPA generated mean 48-h EC<sub>50</sub> values of 14.44 (6.02–22.85) mg L<sup>−1</sup> for <i>C. silvestrii</i> and 12.05 (1.73–22.37) mg L<sup>−1</sup> for <i>D. similis</i>. When the organisms were exposed to acute doses of NP, mean 48-h EC<sub>50</sub> values were 0.055 (0.047–0.064) mg L<sup>−1</sup> (<i>C. silvestrii</i>) and 0.133 (0.067–0.200) mg L<sup>−1</sup> (<i>D. similis</i>). <i>Ceriodaphnia silvestrii</i> was also tested in chronic bioassays, which resulted in mean 8-d IC<sub>25</sub> values of 2.43 (2.16–2.69) mg L<sup>−1</sup> BPA [no observed effect concentration (NOEC): 1.38 mg L<sup>−1</sup>] and 0.020 (0.015–0.026) mg L<sup>−1</sup> NP (NOEC: 0.015 mg L<sup>−1</sup>). These laboratory tests are valuable to broaden the understanding of the environmental threat posed by BPA and NP in aquatic ecosystems, and to increase the knowledge about the sensitivity of neotropical indigenous species to these contaminants. In addition to the laboratory bioassays, species sensitivity distributions were used to suggest protective concentrations of BPA and NP to prevent adverse effects on freshwater organisms. According to the obtained results, concentrations lower than 36.47 µg L<sup>−1</sup> BPA and 1.39 µg L<sup>−1</sup> NP are not expected to adversely impact aquatic organisms in natural ecosystems.</p>