Diverse plant extracts and trans-resveratrol inhibit biofilm formation and swarming of Escherichia coli O157:H7
Infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a worldwide problem. Of the 498 plant extracts screened against EHEC, 16 inhibited the formation of biofilm of EHEC by >85% without inhibiting the growth of planktonic cells, and 14 plant extracts reduced the swarming motility of EHEC. The most active extract, Carex dimorpholepis, decreased swimming and swarming motilities and curli formation. Transcriptional analyses showed that the extract of C. dimorpholepis repressed curli genes, various motility genes, and AI-2 quorum sensing genes, which was corroborated by reduction in the production of fimbria, motility, and biofilm by EHEC. Trans-resveratrol at 10 μg ml−1 in the extract of C. dimorpholepis was found to be a new anti-biofilm compound against EHEC, but importantly, the extract of C. dimorpholepis and trans-resveratrol did not inhibit the fomation of biofilm in four commensal E. coli strains. Furthermore, the extract of C. dimorpholepis decreased the adhesion of EHEC cells to human epithelial cells without affecting the viability of these cells.