Dip-Pen Nanolithography of High-Melting-Temperature Molecules

Direct nanopatterning of a number of high-melting-temperature molecules has been systematically investigated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). By tuning DPN experimental conditions, all of the high-melting-temperature molecules transported smoothly from the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to the surface at room temperature without tip preheating. Water meniscus formation between the tip and substrate is found to play a critical role in patterning high-melting-temperature molecules. These results show that heating an AFM probe to a temperature above the ink's melting temperature is not a prerequisite for ink delivery, which extends the current “ink−substrate” combinations available to DPN users.