Development of Manual Shaking and Ultrasound-Assisted Surfactant-Enhanced Emulsification Microextraction for Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Aqueous Samples
A novel, rapid and efficient manual shaking and ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction (M-UASEME) combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) was developed for the extraction and determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in tap water and honey samples. The main parameters that affected the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) ranged from 2.4 to 9.3%. Limits of detection (LOD) were varied between 0.005 and 0.05 µg L-1. Good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.5-50.0 µg L-1 for all analytes with the correlation coefficients (r) > 0.9964. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to determine the eight pesticide residues in real samples. The recoveries of the target analytes in samples were between 82.4 and 96.7%.