Detecting HER2 on Cancer Cells by TiO2 Spheres Mie Scattering

This work is the first to describe a bioimaging method that uses highly uniformly sized TiO2 submicrometer and micrometer spheres based on Mie scattering. Transmembrane proteins (HER2) located on the surface of cancer cells were detected by bonded antibody-linked TiO2 spheres using optic microscopy and UV−vis spectroscopy. A particular HER2 bond on cancer cells, which has a weaker binding affinity than the biotin/avidin interaction, can be identified between TiO2 spheres that are linked to anti-HER2 antibodies and those that are linked to nonspecific mouse IgG antibodies by observing the cells under an optical microscope or by measuring absorbance from a UV−vis spectrum. The TiO2 spheres used in this work was prepared by reacting TTIP with carboxylic acid, as described elsewhere and the uniformity of the TiO2 sphere was further improved by adjusting the amount of water used. The water content was inversely related to particle size and the size distribution: as more water was used, smaller spheres with a narrower size distribution were obtained. The most uniform sphere obtained had a diameter of about 1 μm with a size variation of 3%.